This is straightforward, just has a number of steps to it. If you take the first raster (that you linked) and run it through the Aggregate tool (
arctoolbox -> spatial analyst tools -> generalization -> aggregate ) in the Spatial Analyst toolbox, you can add GDP values for neighboring cells and downsample to 1 degree by 1 degree. To do this, set the "Cell factor" to 120 (1 degree / 0.008333 original resolution), and use the SUM Aggregation technique:
If you look in the new raster's Properties window, the resolution is 1 degree (and type is float 32-bit). You'll need to convert it to integer type (to be able to turn it into vectorized data), so run it through the Int tool (
arctoolbox -> spatial analyst tools -> math -> int ):
Next, run the integer value raster through the "Raster to Point" tool (
arctoolbox -> conversion tools -> from rasters -> raster to point). Be sure to set the "Field" value to Value, and set the output to either a feature class or Shapefile (saved in Windows file system).
Then, "Add XY Coordinates" (
arctoolbox -> data management tools -> features -> add XY coordinates) with your feature class as the single parameter, to get the longitude and latitude:
Now you have all your information in a single table! You can run the "Table to Excel" tool (
arc tool box -> conversion tools -> excel -> table to excel) to get this to an Excel document, but I find it's easier to Select All rows and right-click in the Attributes Table (left margin) to "Copy Selected" rows and simply paste in a new Excel worksheet.