I have a lot of points, I started to editing with QGIS, after editing my data disappear.
I do not understand the reason?
As @JGH pointed out, part of the problem may be that your DBF file is corrupted, and it is.
I opened the dbf in a hex editor and some bytes needed to read it are missing. The bytes 8(08) through 10(0B) were zeroed, these bytes tell you how big is the file header and how big are the records in bytes. Your first byte value is a zero too, which is a valid value from the spec (as far as I can tell) but doesn't seem to open unless it is a
0x03 value, similar to other shapefiles.
What you had:
What it should be:
I corrected the values and now your shapefile works in QGIS, and the values remain when in edit mode.
Here is a archive with a working shapefile, hopefully 10 minutes of my work saved you having to recreate 2055 records. Enjoy.