I found no definitive proof in any help menus or forums that ArcScene can export vectors. I could be wrong but nothing I tried worked. I have a workaround if indeed it is not possible to export a vector file from ArcScene to Illustrator (.ai).
Instead of using ArcScene, I used ArcMap 10.8x. The workflow is as follows:
- In ArcScene or ArcGlobe, get your vector data displayed as you want it to appear
- Zoom out so the whole globe is visible > select the info tool > click centre of globe and record the lat/long values returned in the info window.
- Open a coordinate system window (e.g. open Layer Properties and click on the Coordinate System tab)
- Navigate to Projected Coordinate Systems > World (Sphere Based) > right-click on Vertical Perspective (Sphere) > select Copy and Modify...
- Edit the Latitude_Of_Centre and Longitude_Of_Centre to match the values from Step 2 and click OK. In the example below, the default centres have been changed from 0 to -132 and -20
- Project your vector data to the new projection file that you created
- Create a hillshade raster layer to mimic 3D effect and add a transparent layer over the hillshade (e.g. satellite imagery). I used the Hillshade Toolbox downloaded from here. I did not bother projecting my WGS84 raster data
- Set dataframe to your custom projection file that you created in Step 5 > add your data > play around with your layers until you get them looking how you want them and export to an ai file. I recommend exporting raster separately as a jpeg.
The screen capture below shows the result in Illustrator with a vector feature selected. The satellite imagery is set to 30% transparency, which 'muffles' the 3D effect, so I recommend ~60% transparency for a more 'realistic' 3D view. The tradeoff for a higher transparency is that the raster imagery ends up looking 'washed out' but I am satisfied with the result for my intended purpose:
As stated, I do not know whether ArcScene can actually export vectors, if anyone does know how please comment.