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I try to calculate the percentage of water occurrence from 2 Landsat collection (5 and 8). I tried to create the histogram from the occurrence layer to see the distribution of pixel following the percentage. However, instead of range scale should be from 0-100, it was from -2 to 0. I wonder is there any solutions for this ? I have checked the NDWI histogram, it seems like the value became change after I applied ee.Reducer.sum() Histogram of final image

var roi = ee.Geometry.Polygon([[66.553593959953,25.272836727426746]
,[72.815800991203,25.272836727426746]
,[72.815800991203,30.266964292782276]
,[66.553593959953,30.266964292782276]]);
Map.addLayer(roi, {color: 'black'}, 'Study Area',1);
Map.centerObject(roi, 8);

var datasetl5 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LT05/C02/T1_L2')
    .filterDate('1984-04-01', '2012-05-01')
    .filterBounds(roi);
// Applies scaling factors.
function applyScaleFactors(image) {
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBand = image.select('ST_B6').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
              .addBands(thermalBand, null, true);
}

datasetl5 = datasetl5.map(applyScaleFactors);

// landsat 8
var datasetl8 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2')
    .filterDate('2013-05-01', '2014-05-01')
    .filterBounds(roi);
// Applies scaling factors.
function applyScaleFactors2(image) {
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBands = image.select('ST_B.*').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
              .addBands(thermalBands, null, true);
}

datasetl8 = datasetl8.map(applyScaleFactors2);

// add ndwi for a collection
function addNdwil5(img){
var ndwil5 = img.normalizedDifference(['SR_B3', 'SR_B5']).rename('NDWI');
return img.addBands(ndwil5);
}
function addNdwil8(img){
var ndwil8 = img.normalizedDifference(['SR_B3', 'SR_B6']).rename('NDWI');
return img.addBands(ndwil8);
}
// Return the DN that maximizes interclass variance in S1-band (in the region).
var otsu = function(histogram) {
  var counts = ee.Array(ee.Dictionary(histogram).get('histogram'));
  var means = ee.Array(ee.Dictionary(histogram).get('bucketMeans'));
  var size = means.length().get([0]);
  var total = counts.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum(), [0]).get([0]);
  var sum = means.multiply(counts).reduce(ee.Reducer.sum(), [0]).get([0]);
  var mean = sum.divide(total);
  
  var indices = ee.List.sequence(1, size);
  
// Compute between sum of squares, where each mean partitions the data.
  var bss = indices.map(function(i) {
    var aCounts = counts.slice(0, 0, i);
    var aCount = aCounts.reduce(ee.Reducer.sum(), [0]).get([0]);
    var aMeans = means.slice(0, 0, i);
    var aMean = aMeans.multiply(aCounts)
        .reduce(ee.Reducer.sum(), [0]).get([0])
        .divide(aCount);
    var bCount = total.subtract(aCount);
    var bMean = sum.subtract(aCount.multiply(aMean)).divide(bCount);
    return aCount.multiply(aMean.subtract(mean).pow(2)).add(
           bCount.multiply(bMean.subtract(mean).pow(2)));
});
   // Return the mean value corresponding to the maximum BSS.
  return means.sort(bss).get([-1]);
};

// return image with water mask as additional band
var add_waterMask = function(image){
  // Compute histogram
  var histogram = image.select('NDWI').reduceRegion({
    reducer: ee.Reducer.histogram(255, 2)
      .combine('mean', null, true)
      .combine('variance', null, true), 
    geometry: roi, 
    scale: 10,
    bestEffort: true
  });
  // Calculate threshold via function otsu (see before)
  var threshold = otsu(histogram.get('NDWI_histogram'));
  
  // get watermask
  var waterMask = image.select('NDWI').lt(threshold).rename('waterMask');
  waterMask = waterMask.updateMask(waterMask); //Remove all pixels equal to 0
  return image.addBands(waterMask);
};


datasetl8 = datasetl8.select(['SR_B3', 'SR_B6']).map(addNdwil8).map(add_waterMask);
datasetl5 = datasetl5.select(['SR_B3', 'SR_B5']).map(addNdwil5).map(add_waterMask);

var sum = datasetl8.merge(datasetl5)
var water_sum = sum.select('NDWI').reduce(ee.Reducer.sum());
var freq = water_sum.divide(sum.select('NDWI').size()).multiply(100);

Map.addLayer(freq.clip(roi),{palette:['green','yellow','lightblue','darkblue']},'Percentage of annual water occurence');
var histRegion =  roi

// Define the chart and print it to the console.
var chart =
    ui.Chart.image.histogram({image: freq, region: histRegion, scale: 10000})
        .setOptions({
          title: 'Histogram ',
          hAxis: {
            title: '???',
            titleTextStyle: {italic: false, bold: true},
          },
          vAxis:
              {title: '???', titleTextStyle: {italic: false, bold: true}},
          colors: ['cf513e']
        });
print(chart);

1 Answer 1

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You've got a lot of issues with this code.

  1. The add_waterMask function currently does "nothing", in that you're not using the results. But even if you were, it looks wrong; you're keeping the values less than the threshold (the non-water values).

  2. You're taking the sum of the NDWI values and dividing by the count of images, regardless of how many images actually intersect that point. That doesn't seem like a meaningful statistic in any way. You should, at a minimum, divide by the .count(), so masked pixels aren't included in the statistic. But sum/count == mean, so just use mean.

  3. In order to get percentage water occurrence, you need to take the mean of a threshold image (probably what you intended with the waterMask layer), not the original NDWI values, which can be negative.

  4. At a scale of 10,000, there's essentially never any water anywhere, except in the ocean.

  5. You need to cloud mask the inputs; most of the results are from clouds.

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