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After receiving some advice from the group, I am trying to recalculate the water occurrence percentage using Landsat. To achieve this, I extracted the water mask using NDWI for the entire collection and computed the statistics using the reducer.mean() for the NDWI_mask, which I then multiplied by 100%. However, I am experiencing an issue where all the pixel values are displaying as 100 instead of a range between 0 and 100. Does anyone have any idea what might be causing this problem?

Here is the code link: https://code.earthengine.google.com/9cf6dabc0b79caacb8c208d6fd00e6a5

var roi = ee.FeatureCollection("FAO/GAUL_SIMPLIFIED_500m/2015/level0").filter(ee.Filter.eq('ADM0_NAME', 'Pakistan'));
Map.addLayer(roi, {color: 'black'}, 'Study Area',1);
Map.centerObject(roi, 8);

// Landsat5
var cloudMaskC2L5 = function(image) {
  var dilatedCloud = (1 << 1)
  var cloud = (1 << 3)
  var cloudShadow = (1 << 4)
  var qa = image.select('QA_PIXEL');
  var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(dilatedCloud)
    .and(qa.bitwiseAnd(cloud))
    .or(qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudShadow))
  // var mask = qa.bitwiseAnd(dilatedCloud).eq(0).and(
  //   qa.bitwiseAnd(cloud).eq(0)).and(qa.bitwiseAnd(cloudShadow).eq(0))
  var mask2 = image.mask().reduce(ee.Reducer.min());
  return image.updateMask(mask.not()).updateMask(mask2);
}
var datasetl5 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LT05/C02/T1_L2')
    .filterDate('1984-04-01', '2012-05-01')
    .filterBounds(roi)
    .map(cloudMaskC2L5);
    
// Applies scaling factors.
function applyScaleFactors(image) {
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBand = image.select('ST_B6').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
              .addBands(thermalBand, null, true);
}
datasetl5 = datasetl5.map(applyScaleFactors)
// landsat 8
function maskL8sr(image) {

  var qaMask = image.select('QA_PIXEL').bitwiseAnd(parseInt('11111', 2)).eq(0);
  var saturationMask = image.select('QA_RADSAT').eq(0);

  // Apply the scaling factors to the appropriate bands.
  var opticalBands = image.select('SR_B.').multiply(0.0000275).add(-0.2);
  var thermalBands = image.select('ST_B.*').multiply(0.00341802).add(149.0);

  // Replace the original bands with the scaled ones and apply the masks.
  return image.addBands(opticalBands, null, true)
      .addBands(thermalBands, null, true)
      .updateMask(qaMask)
      .updateMask(saturationMask);
}
var datasetl8 = ee.ImageCollection('LANDSAT/LC08/C02/T1_L2')
    .filterDate('2013-05-01', '2022-12-31')
    .filterBounds(roi)
    .map(maskL8sr);

//Map.addLayer(datasetl8)

// add NDWI
function addNdwil5(img) {
var ndwi = img.normalizedDifference(['SR_B2', 'SR_B4']).rename('NDWI');
return img.addBands(ndwi);
}

function addNdwil8(img) {
var ndwi = img.normalizedDifference(['SR_B3', 'SR_B5']).rename('NDWI');
return img.addBands(ndwi);
}
// Function to mask out NDWI
  var addwaterMaskl5 = function(image) {
   var NDWI = image.select(['NDWI']);
    return image.addBands(ee.Image(1).updateMask(NDWI.gte(0.4)).rename('NDWI_mask'));
  };
  var addwaterMaskl8 = function(image) {
   var NDWI = image.select(['NDWI']);
    return image.addBands(ee.Image(1).updateMask(NDWI.gte(0.1)).rename('NDWI_mask'));
  };
// Add NDWI to the collection
var l5ndwi = datasetl5.select(['SR_B2', 'SR_B4'])
.map(addNdwil5).map(addwaterMaskl5);

var l8ndwi = datasetl8
.select(['SR_B3', 'SR_B5'])
.map(addNdwil8).map(addwaterMaskl8);

// Water occurrence
var sum = l8ndwi.merge(l5ndwi)
var water_sum = sum.select('NDWI_mask').reduce(ee.Reducer.mean());
var freq = water_sum.multiply(100);
var visualization_waterfreq = {
  bands: ['NDWI_mask_mean'],
  min: 0.0,
  max: 100.0,
  palette: ['darkblue','lightblue','yellow','red']
};

// SNOW MASK
var snow_dataset = ee.FeatureCollection('GLIMS/20210914');
var visParams = {
  palette: ['gray', 'cyan', 'blue'],
  min: 0.0,
  max: 10.0,
  opacity: 0.8,
};
/var snow_mask = ee.Image().float().paint(snow_dataset, 'area');

Map.addLayer(snow_mask.clip(roi), visParams, 'GLIMS/20210914');
var water_mask = freq.where(snow_mask,0);
var water = water_mask.updateMask(water_mask);
      // Mask out areas with more than 5 percent slope using a Digital Elevation Model 
      var DEM = ee.Image('WWF/HydroSHEDS/03VFDEM');
      var terrain = ee.Algorithms.Terrain(DEM);
      var slope = terrain.select('slope');
      var waterfinal = water.updateMask(slope.lt(5));
      var connections = waterfinal.int16().connectedPixelCount(3); 
      var wom = waterfinal.updateMask(connections.gte(3));
Map.addLayer(wom.clip(roi), visualization_waterfreq, 'Occurrence');

1 Answer 1

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Here's your problem:

return image.addBands(ee.Image(1).updateMask(NDWI.gte(0.1)).rename('NDWI_mask'));

The resulting image is 1 or the pixel is masked, so your mean is 1. The below snippet would instead give you 1 for water and 0 for no water, and mean will give you the fraction of observations that have water:

return image.addBands(NDWI.gte(0.1).rename('NDWI_mask'))
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