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I am trying to calculate the solar potential/solar exposure of the littoral zones for a few lakes in Python. I already got the bathymetry/topographic data but I am still searching for ways to calculate the solar potential in Python. I know that there are good solutions in the QGIS SAGA and GRASS toolboxes, but I would like a solution that can be integrated into my Python processing pipeline. And I also know about Pysolar or Pvlib, but I can not find a built-in function to include the surface angle and surface orientation into the calculations.

Am I missing something or is there a good solution to include a DEM within the existing Python libraries?

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Okay so I found a solution, I got a downwelling irradiance (Ed) approximation from the satellite data I was using, aswell as solar zenith angle and solar azimuth angle. From there I calculated the zenith and azimuth angles below the water surface using Snell's law, and the irradiance at the bottom of the water basin via the following functions:

import numpy as np 

def snells_law(angle):   
# Calculate the angle of refraction using Snell's law
n1 = 1  # Refractive index of air
n2 = 1.33  # Refractive index of water
theta2 = math.asin(n1 * math.sin(angle) / n2)

return theta2



def calculate_downwelling_irradiance(Ed,zenith, azimuth, tilt, orientation):
# Convert angles to radians and implement water refraction
zenith_rad = snells_law(np.radians(zenith))
azimuth_rad = snells_law(np.radians(azimuth))
tilt_rad = np.radians(tilt)
orientation_rad = np.radians(orientation)

# Calculate the angle of incidence
cos_theta = np.cos(zenith_rad) * np.cos(tilt_rad) + np.sin(zenith_rad) * np.sin(tilt_rad) * np.cos(azimuth_rad - orientation_rad)
theta = np.arccos(cos_theta)



# Calculate downwelling irradiance on the surface
Ed_surface = Ed * np.cos(theta)

return Ed_surface

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