We have just built and new ArcGIS/ArcSDE system with SQL Server 2012 SP1. We are experiencing very long periods (up to 2 minutes) just to connect to the database in Desktop. Desktop does connect and we can publish map services, but everything is painfully slow. We have ruled out network issues, and wonder if we are missing something. Has anyone experienced this?
Esri just released a patch addressing this exact problem. Identified as bug NIM082657 - When working with a SQL Server 2012 geodatabase and Geometry or Geography type data, ArcMap drawing performance is slower than it was using SQL Server 2008. This affects all rendering and editing operations.
Downloads and instructions here -- http://support.esri.com/en/downloads/patches-servicepacks/view/productid/160/metaid/1954
we had the same problem...and while not ideal the solution for us was to use SDE Binary storage type...super fast after that!