I think you found the right tool for creating your data. QGIS is mainly for creating the information not necessarily for sharing the information.
Luckily what you are wanting is actually kind of trivial in QGIS and with something like Google Maps but you need some background knowledge. If you know nothing about GIS it might seem daunting at first but quickly becomes common knowledge. I bold words that will help you on your search for knowledge, but this process, especially without GIS background is bit beyond SE format. But I can give you an idea of how to get there.
But your will need to pickup some basic understanding of projections, datum, and coordinate systems. Without this knowledge your map may show your feature in different locations then expected.
Next you need to learn how to digitize your features using QGIS and save them into the easiest format which is a shapefile. Create polygons, point and line that you will overlay onto your mapping application. If you have images that do not have georeference to them, then you need to know how to georeference and/or rubber-sheet an image.
Once you have your data all ready you just have to export it from QGIS to a format that you can use with your mapping application. Exporting to KML(Keyhole Markup Language) is a good option, it save your data(your details) and the features you digitized.
Using Google Maps and KML is stupid-easy, they work out of the box. As do a lot of mapping application out there.
To get an image to appear in the balloon is a little more work. Involves embedding HTML into the KML file but with a little work you can do it.