I've read that Prism collects metadata, but no details of what that metadata includes. Does anyone know if location is part of the metadata?
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According to the court order, under which Verizon handed over the data:
Telephony metadata includes comprehensive communications routing information,. including but not limited to session identifying information (e.g., originating and terminating telephone number, International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number, International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, etc.), trunk identifier, telephone calling card numbers, and time and duration of call. Telephony metadata does not include the substantive content of any communication....
Given my understanding of Cell Networks, calculating the position of a cell phone, based on tower based triangulation, is quite simple in theory, but is usually not done. It is also not very accurate. It is definitely possible for Law-enforcement Authorities to ask your service provider to provide the location of a cell phone in the past.
However the discussion is rather moot, since the above court order is silent on the matter.