How does Google Maps know the name of the very small shop in my street? How do they collect that kind of data?
In Turkey, their data provider is Basarsoft.
Basarsoft is a mapping company which has been in business for more than 15 years. They have field teams all over Turkey, patrolling with their cars and bikes and recording every street name, points of interest (such as parks, hospitals, stores, malls etc.) and boundaries aswell.
This dataset is refreshed almost every 6 months. Metropolitan areas have shorter update intervals such as 3 months.
Although google wants people to provide this info, their major providers are companies all over the world such as Basarsoft.