If I have understood your question, you have some line data in a GIS format and a csv file with the attributes in it and both the GIS data and the CSV data have a common attribute of 'road name'.
If my understanding is correct then you simply need to do a table join. Load your lines data and the CSV into QGIS (in this case load the CSV in exactly the same way as your lines to ensure it comes in as a table). Double click on your lines layer to bring up the properties dialog box and select 'Joins'. Make a new join using your CSV table and select the road name field in the source and target tables.
There is also a plugin to help you. If you have MMQGIS installed, go MMQGIS->Combine->Attribute Join From CSV File.