I am trying to figure out if there are other viable exchange formats for spatially enabled data. So far, it seems SpatiaLite is the only one out there, but it has yet to be adopted by the industry.
In terms of OGC Simple Feature SQL specifications, Spatialite is the only open source implementation on a single file basics. For this reason (and others!) it has major benefits compared to other flat vectorial formats like shapefile etc...
Being fully supported by GDAL as an "official" OGR driver , this is a warranty for future support of major GIS Desktop software (they all use the universal GDAL).
Currently only QGIS is able to read (and write) it, so if you want an exchange format directly readable/writable from your software without exports to other formats maybe it is still not your best option, if you are not using QGIS.
If you need an exchange forma though, as already suggested, you can use a whatever supported format from GDAL/OGR  and then import back to a spatial db.
Note that if Spatialite will implement topology, as I have heard, it will be have a major benefit compared to other plan formats (like shapefiles for example).
Although it lacks support outside of ESRI, Personal Geodatabase would be a good choice, and has industry adoption. In terms of adoption AutoCAD formats could also be considered.
I think that the snag is when you say, 'adopted by the industry'. There is value for the large proprietary GIS software companies to control the data format.
SpatiaLite works great with QGIS. You can build map layers based on SQL queries.
If you want to combine spatial features and related tables all in a single file for exchanging, SpatiaLite is great. If you just want to exchange features with attributes, a zipped shapefile is still your best bet.
For what its worth, my vote goes to Spatialite as the single file solution, exchangeable with everyone. Esri personal geodatabases (.mdb) are great but don't work with a lot of GIS system stacks, primarily those that are Linux based, because the file format requires proprietary Microsoft database drivers that are unavailable to many. The other single file remedies offer unique crutches to get your data from various places--online services, GPS devices etc. (KML, GPX) ..or from other GIS users who have collected data to share with you in shapefile format. dxf and dwg and other CAD formats don't offer the functionality GIS users expect. Ofcourse, if you are placing your data on a server to be fed out to many, then you don't need a single file format. PostGIS would be the non-file database (server) solution.
Now OGC GeoPackage is the spatial database for vector features and raster tiles standard. However, you can't do spatial operations/functions/queries on gpkg. You can create a virtualgpkg in spatialite and use spatialite for those spatial operations.
SQLite itself is somewhat spatial. OGR support writing to it. Besides SpatiaLite (which is poorly supported) there is Autodesk's SDF format. The latest versions are actually SQLite files.