How do I speed up the process of redrawing layers in a MXD?
I have already tried reloading and indexing the layers.
The layers were created from shapefiles.
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If you don't need to edit or change symbology in your layers (too often), you can use Basemap layers. It will keep the data in-memory after drawing it for the first time.
But, as mentioned, the price to pay is that the only thing you can do with a layer in a Basemap layer group is turn it on or off. Everything else is disabled.
Another thing you can do is to save all your data on disk instead of a remote server, if you haven't already done so.
Some points to improve display performance of vector data:
Turn labeling off.
use display range for labels and annotations
Use label classes to display only a subset of features with Labels.
Using of label weight will decrease Performance
Label expressions decrease performance
Annotations are faster than labels
Store annotations in Geodatabases, not in MXD