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If I have an arbitrary polygon, and wish to hatch it with lines at a given angle and spacing, is there a simple low-level algorithm which will return the set of hatch lines inside the polygon?

  • I think you need to define your metric for "simple". Calculating the lines is simple, but the simplicity of intersecting them with the base figure depends on what other tools you have available, and how you feel about simultaneous linear equations in two variables. – Vince Mar 30 '14 at 0:07
  • Well, less brute-force than my current proposed method, which is to render a viewport full of hatches, then cut it down using GEOS's intersection function against the polygon … – scruss Mar 30 '14 at 2:37
  • That's as simple as it gets, unless you want to use matrix algebra to solve the intersection of the hatch segments with the polygon boundary segments. – Vince Mar 30 '14 at 2:41
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Vince's comments led me to look again at Shapely in Python, and it can do it. In short, the method I used was:

  • get the bounding box of the page/object you want
  • calculate the diagonal of this box, as this will be the minimum length your hatch lines need to be
  • draw a square array of horizontal lines centred on the bounding box's centre, each spaced suitably apart
  • rotate these lines to the desired angle
  • clip them to the bounding box.

Somewhat crude example code:

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# shapely_hatch - simple hatching function demo
# produces WKT of a 45° hatched crescent to stdout
# scruss — 2014-04-13 — WTFPL (srsly)

from shapely.geometry import box, MultiLineString, Point
from shapely.affinity import rotate
from shapely import speedups
from math import sqrt

# enable Shapely speedups, if possible
if speedups.available:
    speedups.enable()

def hatchbox(rect, angle, spacing):
    """
    returns a Shapely geometry (MULTILINESTRING, or more rarely,
    GEOMETRYCOLLECTION) for a simple hatched rectangle.

    args:
    rect - a Shapely geometry for the outer boundary of the hatch
           Likely most useful if it really is a rectangle

    angle - angle of hatch lines, conventional anticlockwise -ve

    spacing - spacing between hatch lines

    GEOMETRYCOLLECTION case occurs when a hatch line intersects with
    the corner of the clipping rectangle, which produces a point
    along with the usual lines.
    """

    (llx, lly, urx, ury) = rect.bounds
    centre_x = (urx + llx) / 2
    centre_y = (ury + lly) / 2
    diagonal_length = sqrt((urx - llx) ** 2 + (ury - lly) ** 2)
    number_of_lines = 2 + int(diagonal_length / spacing)
    hatch_length = spacing * (number_of_lines - 1)

    # build a square (of side hatch_length) horizontal lines
    # centred on centroid of the bounding box, 'spacing' units apart
    coords = []
    for i in range(number_of_lines):
        # alternate lines l2r and r2l to keep HP-7470A plotter happy ☺
        if i % 2:
            coords.extend([((centre_x - hatch_length / 2, centre_y
                          - hatch_length / 2 + i * spacing), (centre_x
                          + hatch_length / 2, centre_y - hatch_length
                          / 2 + i * spacing))])
        else:
            coords.extend([((centre_x + hatch_length / 2, centre_y
                          - hatch_length / 2 + i * spacing), (centre_x
                          - hatch_length / 2, centre_y - hatch_length
                          / 2 + i * spacing))])
    # turn array into Shapely object
    lines = MultiLineString(coords)
    # Rotate by angle around box centre
    lines = rotate(lines, angle, origin='centroid', use_radians=False)
    # return clipped array
    return rect.intersection(lines)

# pipe-separated output; can be read by QGIS
print 'ID| WKT'
page = box(1000, 1000, 6000, 6000)
hatching = hatchbox(page, 45, 50)
circle = Point(2500, 2500).buffer(1000)
circle1 = Point(2000, 2500).buffer(700)
crescent = circle.difference(circle1)
crescent_hatch = crescent.intersection(hatching)
print '1|', crescent_hatch

The output, when graphed, looks like this:

hatch example plot

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