This is rather old (1994) so predates RDF/OWL by a long way, but may be of theoretical interest. It was developed independently from, but around the same time as, Geographic Markup Language (GML), and is more of a conceptual discussion than a comprehensive catalog.
Towards a geographic semantic database model, by M Feuchtwanger (me). Here's the abstract:
The management of geographic data is a great problem in contemporary
cartography. To date, little theory has been developed to assist
such a task. This thesis proposes a geographic semantic database
model: a concept for the design, construction, and use of geographic
databases. The work involved the synthesis of both general semantic
database concepts and specific geographic information concepts.
A logical database model incorporates notions of the structural and
behavioral aspects of stored information. Structurally, a database
contains entities, relations, and attributes. Behaviorally, a
database has queries and transactions. Database models are evolving
from syntactic to semantic forms, representing greater ability to
directly and easily model reality.
Any things of interest in geographic data processing can be called
phenomena. A phenomenon exhibits three primary characteristics:
topical, spatial, and temporal. That is, it has some identification
and position, and exists at some time. Information on phenomena thus
exists within three characterization domains. It also exists within
three abstraction domains: generalization, realization, and
construction. That is, geographic data have some accuracy and
resolution, some form between reality and concept, and a level of
meaning or applicability. The characterization and abstraction
domains are the particularly geographic ways for logically
partitioning a collection of data.
The proposed geographic database model contains entities, such as
features, profiles, layers, and composites, which represent
geographic phenomena. The entities are characterized by topical,
spatial, temporal, and scale attributes, and by semantic, topologic,
and abstraction relations to other entities. They can be retrieved,
displayed, or updated by database manipulations comprising selections
and actions. The entities also exist at different levels of
abstraction: at different scales, appropriate for different levels of
investigation; in analytic or graphic form, depending on whether they
are to be used for machine or visual processing; and as applied,
basic, or primal constructs, appropriate for different levels of use.
Combining concepts from database management and analytical
cartography into a geographic database model not only facilitates the
analysis and design of geographic databases but also is a step
towards a general theory of geographic information management and
It's available as a PDF scan or PostScript files.