10

I have a shapefile of the world continents in EPSG 4326.

To what reference system do I have to reproject my file to get a projecting like this globe below?enter image description here

15

This family of projection is called azimuthal orthographic (all rays from globe to flat map are parallel). You can define the Lat/long coordinates of the center of the projection to choose the visible hemisphere.

There is no EPSG code from what I know, but here is the PROJ.4 definition.

+proj=ortho +lat_0=Latitude at projection center 
            +lon_0=Longitude at projection center
            +x_0=False Easting
            +y_0=False Northing

example with lat = 0 and long = -41

0

A variation (on the already suggested azimuthal orthographic projection) would be to use an azimuthal perspective projection, similar to what's used in Google Earth. This mimics what you'd see looking at a real globe via the lens of the eyes or camera, but covering a little less than a "full" hemisphere. I don't know the parameters to use, but you'd need to experiment with different altitudes and scales to get close to your given sketch map.

0

My web-based Globus Map Projector can also do that for you. Go here: https://www.winski.net/?page_id=12, and choose the full version of the projector. From there you can simply select your project to to ortographic.

enter image description here

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