Questions tagged [remote-sensing]

Collecting and interpreting information about the environment and the surface of the earth from a distance, primarily by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected by the earth's surface or from the atmosphere, or by sensing signals transmitted from a device and reflected back to it.

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8 views

How to aggregate properly 8-days MODIS ET to a monthly ET?

I am looking for a robust method to aggregate the 8-day MOD16A2 (or MOD16A2GF) ET_500m values to monthly ET. Since ET_500m and PET_500m, are the summation of 8-day total water loss (0.1 kg/m2/8day). I ...
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42 views

Image (band) interpolation

I have a set of sentinel 2A images. I eliminated those that contained too many clouds, and then I created a cloud mask using cloud probabilities and Otsu thresholding method to eliminate cloudy pixels ...
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17 views

Ground Truth Data for India [closed]

I'm starting to get involved in a humanitarian project to understand crop-type and crop-yield in India to identify areas where they may be food shortages. The current approach for this project is to ...
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12 views

Correcting MODIS band stripes [closed]

I am trying to generate the NDVI and NDWI in order to calculate the NDDI based on MODIS imagery. For this, I am using the bands 1,2 and 7. While working with the data, I have remarked that the band 7 ...
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16 views

Supervised Classification Sentinel 2 using QGIS Semi Automatic Classification Plugins: virtual raster/virtual band set

I am using QGIS semi-automatic classification plugin, supervised classification (LC Classification) of Sentinel 2. My Question is: According to the online tutorials (please check the tutorial: https://...
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11 views

Sample strategy to model continuous variable from conglomerate ground sample units

I´m using data from the Brazilian national forest inventory to model forest canopy metrics with Landsat imagery. The sample units have this conglomerate configuration (picture), which creates a ...
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1answer
27 views

Google earth engine - set null band values as zero

I have a function which assigns a score depend on the value of a band, which I then map to an image collection. However, in some cases, I have null values, where no value is given. In these cases I'd ...
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34 views

Converting a FLIR image CSV to TIFF using Python

I have a geolocated CSV file containing one lat, long coordinate for the entire thermal image. I would like to convert this CSV to a TIFF using Python so that each pixel contains a temperature. All ...
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2answers
36 views

Interpretation of NDVI values

This might be a trivial question, but please bear with me. So I am using python and Sentinel images and I want to calculate NDVI, which is (NIR-RED)/(NIR+RED). So in the case where the final result ...
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1answer
20 views

Georeferencing bands at first then calculating NDWI, or, calculating NDWI at first and then georeferencing it

I want to get NDWI from MODIS mod021km as GeoTIFF files. As far as you know, MODIS images are not georeferenced and the point is georeferencing these imagages is a little bit inaccurate (because of ...
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24 views

Landsat 8 extracted pixel values for up North: 'pixel_qa' value of 322

I am trying to get landsat reflectance values corresponding to field plots spread all over Finland using the Google Earth Engine. As you know, Finland is up North, between latitudes of ~60 and 70 ...
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43 views

Extract landsat pixel values over plots with measurement dates

I am trying to get landsat reflectance values corresponding to field plots spread all over Finland in Google Earth Engine. Each plot is small, hence is represented by a single point (lat, lon). It ...
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Unsupervised pixel classification in ArcGIS Pro 2.4.0: ISO cluster will not let me classify image into three classes

I am using ArcGIS Pro 2.4.0, and am attempting to classify a field into a schema with three categories: Leaves, Shadows, and Soil. Here is a sample of the original RGB image: Through supervised ...
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14 views

Visualizing True Color Remotely Sensed Images

I am following this tutorial (which is also on GitHub) and I can't seem to understand this line of code: np.clip(eopatch.data['BANDS'][closest_date_id][..., [2, 1, 0]] * 3.5, 0, 1) I am guessing ...
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1answer
51 views

Empty geometry error in GeoPandas dataframe

I want to reproject my ground truth data (land reference map) to UTM. # Load Reference Data (reference map = ground truth data): labeled vector data in a shapefile (crops in Jendouba) LULC_filename = ...
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32 views

How to predict the whole image through trained classifier and visualize it as classified landuse and landcover image(LULC)?

I am working on LULC classification of sentinel-2 image(4-bands) using Machine Learning algorithms.I split the whole image into 64*64 patches and assigned class label(builtup,barren land,water and ...
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31 views

Is there a Post-classification Majority Analysis feature on Google Earth Engine (Similar to ENVI) for Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images?

In ENVI there's a Majority/Minority Analysis function that allows you to to change spurious/"wrongly classified" pixels within a large single class to that class (it also allows you to enter kernel ...
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1answer
30 views

Sentinel-2: Resampling Spatial Resolution

Does resampling spatial resolution possible to do for all of the Sentinel-2 products, especially Level-1C? For instance, I want to uniform B1 - B12 spatial resolution to 20m. I just want to confirm it ...
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29 views

Sentinel-2 images

I am going to use Sentinel-2 images for crop type classification, and I am new to remote sensing. I want to know if there is an added value when using both L2A and L1C images. From what I understand, ...
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1answer
29 views

How is a GeoTIFF geographically referenced if it has no sidecar files?

I am currently downloading MODIS burned area fire products to use for a work project. One of these products is a GeoTIFF which indicates the day (Julian date) of the year when an area experienced fire....
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8 views

Sentinel-2-L2A band compositing

Is it possible to create features from composite bands for the task of crop type classification using machine learning and python? (just like using NDVI data).
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1answer
54 views

Dealing with NAN values in my training dataset

I am new to remote sensing. I am working on a project where I need to perform land use land cover classification. For such a task I want to use machine learning (python). My features contain 'BANDS' (...
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18 views

RAM Problem When Loading HDF Datasets

I am trying to store my labels and features datasets extracted from 324 patches in an HDF file because loading them (labels and features) directly from the patches was failing since the RAM hits its ...
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1answer
66 views

Python code speed execution problem

I am trying to retrieve data from 324 eopatches I sampled beforehand. Patches are basically numpy arrays as explained in this documentation EOPatch. This is an example of the content of a patch after ...
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40 views

KeyError: 'BANDS' and NameError: 'bands'

I am trying to follow this tutorial: land cover fastai And while executing the workflow, I got this error: eopatch 0 has been processed! ---------------------------------------------------------------...
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1answer
88 views

ValueError: too many values to unpack (expected 2)

I am trying to follow this tutorial: land cover fastai And while executing the workflow, I got this error: This is the code where the error occurs: def png_gen(patch, inference=False): """Save ...
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38 views

Downloading data from Sentinel's API - LTA error

I am trying to download data and I get this error when I am using the sentinelsat Python API: sentinelsat.sentinel.SentinelAPILTAError: HTTP status 500 Internal Server Error: Trying to download an ...
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1answer
41 views

Pre-trained transfer learning models for satellite image classification

I am currently working on a project that tackles crop type classification using machine learning and deep learning. Given the limited amount of satellite data that I have, transfer learning sounds ...
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18 views

Standardization, or mean removal and variance scaling of remote sensing data

I am trying to follow this tutorial Tree Cover Prediction Using Deep Learning. The following sample code is aimed to standardize the data. img_mean = np.mean(x_train_raw, axis=(0, 1, 2)) img_std = np....
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30 views

Transforming an image (TIFF) into an array

I found the following code for crop classification and I am trying to understand it. # We have 10 images and 5 bands for each image so we’ll have a total of 50 columns in our data frame # we’ll ...
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17 views

Python Resources for Remote Sensing [duplicate]

I am a student with very little experience coding, and no experience with Python. I was told by my Honours Project Supervisor that I should try and learn, at the very least, the basics of coding in ...
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38 views

Reading .tiff data using Python

I got none type while trying to open those tiff data. What issue could it possibly be? I tried this: import glob images_tiff = [] for im in glob.glob(os.path.join(data_path, "*.tiff")): im = ...
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28 views

Creating Daily Mosaics from Orbiting Satellite Imagery

I'm trying to combine Sentinel-5p L2 Cloud Optimized Geotiffs (COGT) files into daily aggregates. In some literature these daily aggregates would be called "L3" data. Sentinel-5p captures 13-14 ...
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11 views

ENVI batch processing thermal images to degrees celsius

I have a folder called SET1 that contains .tif thermal images from a Micasense Altum. In ENVI, I would like to: Batch process all the images in the folder to calibrate the pixel values to degrees ...
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1answer
38 views

GEE: Select random sample on known-NDVI-range for supervised classification

I intend to get random samples for training the supervised classification in Google earth engine. The code here, for example, I calculate NDVI and mask out NDVI < 0.65 (i.e. NDVI >= 0.65 is ...
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47 views

How do I get the latitude and longitude of only the white pixels in an area?

I'm working on a project where we're trying to measure the shape of coastlines. After some experimentation, I came up with an edge detector that has very little noise. Now, my goal is to get the ...
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35 views

Correcting offset between LiDAR datasets

I am analyzing multiple LiDAR datasets looking at the changes between pre-wildfire and post-wildfire topography. The datatsets are of the same general location. I did not acquire the datasets on my ...
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13 views

clred- edge index for canopy chlorophyll content

I want to use clred-edge chlorophyll index to extract canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) from Sentinel-2 But based on the various articles I've read, I have two questions Is there a numerical range ...
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1answer
14 views

What exactly does the MODIS Land Cover QA-Class “Backfilled label” mean?

This is about the MCD12Q1.006 product and more specifically code 8 of the QA band. The description for it is: Backfilled label: Missing label from stabilization, filled with the pre-stabilized ...
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68 views

“Error in .subset2(x, i, exact = exact) : subscript out of bounds” in R-programming

I am trying to apply Radiometric correction to Landsat image in R. I tried with the following code and got the error. metadata <- readMeta("LT05_L1TP_141041_20110129_20161010_01_T1_MTL.txt") ...
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2answers
39 views

Guide book of SNAP

I would like to study SNAP Software made by ESA. I don't find any PDF or book online. Have you any ideas where I can find it?
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What unit of measurement is rxwaveform from the GEDI L1B dataset in?

Rxwaveform is listed in GEDI's data level product L1B's data dictionary as "The corrected receive (RX) waveforms. Use rx_sample_count and rx_sample_start_index to identify the location of each ...
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27 views

Nearest Neighbor Global matching

I'm trying to compare two datasets; a satellite image and some known points. In the satellite image I've got 20 to 50 detections that should match up to a set of lat/lon points that I have. There is ...
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1answer
141 views

Pansharpening Sentinel-2 imagery in Google Earth Engine

I am attempting to pansharpen Sentinel-2 imagery in GEE in order to determine the amount of land covered in water at my field site locations (probably will calculate MNDWI on sharpened image). I do ...
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23 views

How to extract a panchromatic image from hyperspectral image

I'm new to the Remote Sensing domain and I'm working on Hyperspectral Pansharpening problem. I'm referring to the paper, "Hyperspectral Pansharpening: A review" (link). They have provided the code for ...
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1answer
28 views

Landsat-8 level 2 DN to reflectance

I have downloaded a series of Landsat-8 level 2 images. My main purpose is to obtain reflectance out of them; however, the scale of the different bands does not look like reflectance (e.g. Blue Band ...
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10 views

Projects using compatible Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 reflectance data

Right from the beginning on the Senintel-2 Satellites were constructed to harmonize with the Landsat-8 products in terms of their spatial and spectral capabilities. What I wonder is, if there are ...
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21 views

Create new color-balanced raster from neighboring rasters

I have some true color 4 band (RGB+alpha) orthoimagery that I collected using VTOL fixed wing drones. Some of the images are darker than others due to the time of day, solar vignetting, and cloud ...
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1answer
158 views

Plotting Time Series of different products in Google Earth Engine

I want to stack different EVI time series (MODIS and SENTINEL 2, potentially more) of a given pixel with ui.Chart.image.series similar to this: https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/...
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77 views

Terrain correction (flattening) of Sentinel 1 images

Using the script available in this forum (belowlink), I tried for terrain correction (flattening) of Sentinel 1 images Getting local incidence angle from Sentinel-1 GRD image collection in Google ...

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