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If you are using the ArcMap application rather than the ArcGIS Pro application of the ArcGIS Desktop product then I believe you will need to use the ArcPy that installs with ArcMap and that requires you to use Python 2.x.


I used pip instead, and it worked. pip install geopandas. I did this because geopandas installs fiona. I should have tried this before posting.


To return to this question, I ended up giving up and configuring the users' computers myself so the script could run on double-click as a .py. As Vince said, it's a stubborn licensing issue with arcpy. For passersby who may be interested in accomplishing what I could not, this may be a helpful resource:


Pyinstaller should be able to do this for you as long it was installed in the same environment as the dependencies (modules/libraries) for your script. Pyinstaller finds all import statements in your script and can compile everything into a single .exe file.


Since you're on Windows 10, search for "Python Command Prompt". This will open a window with the current default ArcGIS Pro python environment activated. Pip and other python modules should work normally, as well as conda.

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