A parcel fabric is a geodatabase quasi-network used for parcel maintenance. It is based upon a related set of point, line and polygon feature classes. Tools for manipulating a parcel fabric are only available with the ArcEditor (ArcGIS Standard) and ArcInfo (ArcGIS Advanced) licenses
A parcel fabric is an ESRI data structure consists of six component tables/feature classes. ArcGIS treats the collection of these six components as a singular entity, meaning that you edit them as one single layer (the parcel fabric layer). When changes are made to the parcel fabric layer, the changes will cascade down to the six related components.
Parcel fabric data stores and maintains accuracy through COGO attributes (records of location made by surveyors or civil engineers). COGO attributes are derived from survey plans and consist of points (a starting XY coordinate, section corners, monuments, etc.) and straight or curved lines. Straight line attributes include a direction in the quadrant bearing format (Degrees-Minutes-Seconds, ex. S2°33'34"E) and a distance attribute. COGO attributes can also consist of curved lines that are maintained through radius, chord, arc length and central angle properties.