There are 13 multi-state US Census' ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs): 02861, 42223, 59221, 63673, 71749, 73949, 81137, 84536, 86044, 86515, 88063, 89439 & 97635.
As others have mentioned, there are a few different ways to figure out the area covered by a ZIP Code, but ZCTAs are the easiest, and the only official version that I know of.
So your ...
The Albers equal area conic is the typical projection for historical USGS maps of the lower 48, it being a general-purpose low-distortion compromise for mid-latitude short and wide extents.
As a reference on map projections, I like the ESRI book Understanding Map Projections. Its first 30 pages are not unlike a short textbook, followed by ~70 pages of ...
I don't know which projection engine ArcGis uses, but a very interesting question also for proj.4. So I give it a try to test the proj.4 projection engine within the GNU-R environment. I use the NAD 83 - UTM 17 corners and EPSG 26917 and reproject it 10000 and 1000000 times recursivly and calculate the difference to the start values.
Here are the results:
Attempt to answer my own question:
The cause of striping in the examples I provided are entirely due to my workflow, not any legacy issue with how the data was originally assembled or mosaiced together. The DEMs I was dealing with were all generated from newer techniques, as evidenced by this map:
The two methods that cover the areas I was working with ...
There are some free applications that let you try and play with projections.
They also indicate to what extend they preserve size, shape or direction. Depending on you application a different priority might be set. For instance if I had to map an areal phenomenon like e.g. certain species habitat zones I'd prefer a projection that ...
ESRI has defined three projections especially for the contiguos United states. These are included in QGIS as well:
+proj=aea +lat_1=29.5 +lat_2=45.5 +lat_0=37.5 +lon_0=-96 +x_0=0 +y_0=0 +datum=NAD83 +units=m +no_defs
+proj=lcc +lat_1=33 +lat_2=45 +lat_0=39 ...
These are Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) state codes, and the ones you mention are missing because, from the wiki:
"certain numeric codes "are reserved for possible future use in identifying American Samoa (03), Canal Zone (07), Guam (14), Puerto Rico (43), and Virgin Islands (52)", but these codes were omitted from FIPS PUB 5-2 without ...
In my experience, it usually means what you think it means: a range of address numbers. I've also seen it used as a way of writing an apartment or suite number, so 136-39 37 AVE would be 136 37th Ave, Apt. 39, and 1221-102 CANYON ROCK CT would be 1221 Canyon Rock Ct, Apt. 102. It's not a very good way to denote an apartment/room/suite number but I've seen it ...
GEOID is the field used to join TIGER/Line geographic data to the demographic data in various American Community Survey products and in the Decennial Census. It is slightly confused by the fact that this field is called GEOID10 only in the TIGER/Line 2010 products (in fact, almost all of the field names in TIGER/Line 2010 end in 10), and by the fact that the ...
There is more than one source depending on the area of interest around the globe.
Google Maps is the terrain layer, which provides a shaded relief (aka
hillshade) view of the topography derived from a digital elevation
model. Google has done a nice job generating a visually pleasing
terrain layer, and we use it for all of our Google Maps-based
My guess is that
which are decimal degrees lat and long, or
55° 49' 31.3" N and 130° 49' 51.3" W in deg-min-sec,
located somewhere in the Alaska panhandle.
Get a zip-code boundary layer and run Polygon Neighbors. Review How Polygon Neighbors Works and Up-To-Date Zip-Code Boundaries
Picture below might be different than your ArcMap looks, but the buttons and procedure should be the same.
Perhaps this is an open-source solution. I have not tested or used this solution which seems to require GRASS 6+ : from the ...
I just checked my old National Atlas bookmark and was redirected not to the National Map Viewer, but to the National Map's Small Scale data page. There are 197 datasets available for download there, to my eyes it looks like it's the same data that was available at the old National Atlas page and they just moved it to the new URL. Are you not being forwarded ...
I worked on updating some USGS quads, back in the 90s. It seemed like most of the style guidelines were published internally, long before the Internet, and never made it online.
It's fairly common to show two sets of State Plane Coordinate System grid tics on quadrangles that are near a boundary between two zones. With UTM zones, it isn't such a big ...
You can download shape files for 2019 Zip Code Tabulation Areas at no cost from
However, these are ZCTAs, and the overlap between ZIP codes and ZCTAs is only 80% or so.
Getting the Data
You can acquire US Census Place Data, which includes cities, here.
For instance, Rhode Island's 2017 Place Data is available here.
For ease of bulk downloading, the full list 2017 place data is:
I work with Address Quality Programs for the National Customer Support Center for the USPS, and looking at our Delivery Point File database, it appears that every residential and business address has an associated ZIP+4s
One could use either kind of latitude to locate points on the WGS 84 ellipsoid (used by the NED) or any other ellipsoid, but "everybody knows" that the values will always be given as geodetic latitudes. However, it is surprisingly hard to find an authoritative statement to that effect!
Before we go on, it helps to understand that although a datum ...
I bet it may be the slight discrepancy between Esri's WKT definition of 26915 and the OGC WKT version. I think the only real difference is in the name (NAD83 / UTM zone 15N vs NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_15N). You could try making a copy of the shapefile, then replace the PRJ file text with the Esri version linked above.
You can obtain the line shapefile for the Mexican border from the U.S. Geological Survey website (or click here directly). Scroll down and from the list of Categories, select the Boundaries option. Then from the Int Boundary layer, click the Shapefile link:
You will also get the length of each line feature (as the boundary is broken up into segments).
Esri has its own projection engine.
Most projections and geographic/datum transformations methods are well-behaved when used in an appropriate area of interest. If you get too far outside of a UTM zone, transverse Mercator doesn't always 'inverse' (convert to latitude-longitude) exactly. Projections used for the whole world may have some issues at or ...
2016 TIGER Data with PostGIS
As a special caveat, ZCTA data isn't USPS Zip Codes. It's an approximation of it. USPS Zip Codes are really horrible and not useful except to approximate. Everyone, including every governmental entity other than USPS, and (the Census for making ZCTA) ignores them entirely. If USPS wanted to a grow up a bit, they'd just convert ...
PROJ.4 strings always want the false easting (x_0) and false northing (y_0) in meters, no matter what the coordinate reference system units are. Change +x_0 to 1000000.0 and you should get the results you want.
As as there is no support EPSG:6479 (NAD83(2011) / Louisiana South (ftUS)) in PROJ4 (look at the comment of mkennedy) I will illustrate the problem with EPSG:3452, NAD83 / Louisiana South (ftUS) because the problem is the same, the units of the projection.
Solution with Pyproj
southla = pyproj.Proj('+proj=lcc +lat_1=30.7 +lat_2=29.3 +lat_0=28....