I've just run a principal components analysis on a Landsat image and am trying to calculate my factor loadings. I'm using the textbook Digital Image Processing by John Jenson as a guide and it says that I need to plug my eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and the covariance matrix into an equation to get the factor loading for each component and band. However, while I had the eigenvalues and vectors output to a file, I can't find the covariance matrix anywhere.

Can anyone tell me where I can find the covariance matrix? I also have access to ENVI and ArcMap in case either of those programs can give me it too.

  • Did you calculate the PCA as correlation or covariance? If you used correlation then there will not be a covariance matrix. – Jeffrey Evans Oct 7 '16 at 16:10

You can use Spatial Model Maker and use operator called Statistics

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or you can use Old Model Maker

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the covariance operator is placed on analysis Part.


You can easily change/calculate the covariance values for any multispectral data. Please go through the procedure as hereunder.

  1. open an input image in viewer
  2. select the entire image area by create polygon option in AOI tools .
  3. after selection, open the signature editor from the classification main menu and click to add a signature
  4. view statistics within the signature editor u will get the total statistics along with covariance of that particular image

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