Yes you can.
ArcGIS Pro will offer a much more integrated experience in being able to create an entire Web Map (data, cartography, popups, bookmarks, etc.) and easily share and replicate that to ArcGIS Online.
However, if you have QGIS, you can still take the results of your work and export it into a format that is supported for publishing from the browser in ArcGIS Online. So, you could export your results to shapefile, upload them to your content in ArcGIS Online, publish as hosted feature layers, and then you have a lot of control for symbology and analysis from within the Map Viewer to create your own web maps and then embed in whatever web application takes your fancy.
In theory, someone could develop a plugin for QGIS that could automate some of this, as there is an Admin API for ArcGIS Online. But for now, you will have to take a manual process.