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I need to do KNN- and within-region queries for POI data. I store the POI locations in a geography column. Since I understand that ST_DISTANCE doesn't use the geography index, I added a geometry index in order to use the <-> operator with indexed performance. This works nicely (unfortunately not over the 180° meridian but that's OK in my case).

Now I'm asking myself for which operations a geography index is actually useful?

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This tutorial/explanation seems to contradict your question's premise(?). But the pertinent part says:

The difference is under the covers: the geography index will correctly handle queries that cover the poles or the international date-line, while the geometry one will not. There are only a small number of native functions for the geography type:

    ST_AsText(geography) returns text
    ST_GeographyFromText(text) returns geography
    ST_AsBinary(geography) returns bytea
    ST_GeogFromWKB(bytea) returns geography
    ST_AsSVG(geography) returns text
    ST_AsGML(geography) returns text
    ST_AsKML(geography) returns text
    ST_AsGeoJson(geography) returns text
    ST_Distance(geography, geography) returns double
    ST_DWithin(geography, geography, float8) returns boolean
    ST_Area(geography) returns double
    ST_Length(geography) returns double
    ST_Covers(geography, geography) returns boolean
    ST_CoveredBy(geography, geography) returns boolean
    ST_Intersects(geography, geography) returns boolean
    ST_Buffer(geography, float8) returns geography [1]
    ST_Intersection(geography, geography) returns geography [1]
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  • I'm aware of the functions for the geography type. My question is which of them actually use the index. ST_DISTANCE apparently doesn't. Aug 9, 2013 at 21:54
  • The reason why I find this question confusing is that there is no reason to use an index - spatial nor otherwise - to solve a math calculation like finding the distance between two places. So it makes sense that ST_Distance doesn't take advantage of a spatial index. I'd expect the other geography functions that 'use' a spatial index are those that select/operate on a table of geometries, like ST_Intersects, ST_Covers. ie; there's probably no benefit to using an index to writing out a geography to text (ST_AsText).
    – mtn.biker
    Aug 11, 2013 at 3:41
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    I mentioned my use case of k-nearest neighbors (KNN). This basically involves queries like SELECT * FROM pois, ST_DISTANCE(pois.location, <reference point>) AS Distance ORDER BY Distance DESC LIMIT 10. It makes a huge difference whether such queries use an index or not. Aug 12, 2013 at 10:12
  • I see your point now. Thanks for walking me through it.
    – mtn.biker
    Aug 12, 2013 at 15:18

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