I am georeferencing some images in ArcMap 10.3.1.
When I want to add the specific layer I'm going to georeference, I cannot choose this from the drop-down menu.
Any ideas on how to solve this problem?
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Try opening a new blank map, adding just that image, and seeing if it appears in the Georeferencing toolbar.
If you are working with an existing map either you or ArcMap may have lost track of its available layers.
Starting with a clean slate map is the way I advocate to try and take out multiple factors that could be coming into play at one hit.
I had the same problem with some .tif images not appearing in the Georeferencing toolbar, while other .tif's from the same project appear. I noticed the hint that appears when holding the mouse cursor over the Georeferencing toolbar: "
...Only raster layers that are not projected on the fly can be georeferenced".
In my case the raster was projected on the fly while those that appeared in the georeferencing toolbar were not. The solution was to project the problematic raster (using Project Raster from Data Management) into the coordinate system of the data frame. Therefore, the image was visible in the Georeferencing toolbar.